Dicionario oxford de filosofia pdf

 

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    Dicionario Oxford De Filosofia Pdf

    J. R. Lucas, Merton College, University of Oxford. Sally McConnell-Ginet, Cornell University. Michael S. Moore, University of Pennsylvania. Alexander Nehamas. DICCIONARIO OXFORD ESENCIAL - Diccionario Oxford Esencial GMT (PDF) EJEMPLO TFM | maria mateo - irtrimuzcomcomp.gq irtrimuzcomcomp.gq Juan F. Franck, Universidad Austral, Instituto de Filosofía Department, Faculty. org/tools/download/irtrimuzcomcomp.gq>, 12 mar. Acesso em: 15 jun. Bar- hillel, Y. Dicionário Oxford de Filosofia. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar. Boarbernard.

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    In this context, for Hegel, being a complete being means being free, eternal.

    The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy - Wikipedia

    This importance lies in the consensus on conceiving the human being as a being who seeks for particular ideals and goals and, for such, articulates its own thoughts and actions MAYR, , p.

    This teleological Nature of the human being can be verified individually by each person, in their subjective living experience and, also, in the obvious acknowledgment of human teleological Nature through the analysis of human discourses, from the ordinary to the deepest ones. In effect, what else is the whole set of technical theories, but a description of how to reach specific goals? And even the moral theory, what is more than a theorization about the ultimate purposes of human life and how to proceed in order to better achieve such purposes?

    One shall take into account all the inquiry endeavors regarding the individuals and society through strict empirical observations proceeded with causal explanation approaches, as intended by Durkheim [ AD], the neoempirists of the Vienna Circle8, behavioral psychology9 and social sciences with quantitative methodologies. However, even recognizing that these areas of scientific investigation obtained useful progresses, it is still patent that the universe of experience of human beings is much broader than a 8 As in its exponents Moritz Schlick [ AD] and Rudolf Carnap [ AD].

    The rough cut of all teleological explanations would reduce a lot the amount of accessible information about the human world, also reducing the usefulness of the human sciences and, furthermore, reducing the conception of what is a human being, as long the subjectivity is being cut too. The approach of Marx [ AD] on the teleology implicit in the human nature is also useful to this topic.

    In his classical illustrative example, in Capital, Marx compares the activity of the bees, while building the honeycomb, with the work of a foreman building a house. Even with the highest perfection of the honeycomb construction, and even with the many limitations that the foreman may have, this last one has something essentially specific: the foreman imagines the work that he will perform, constructing a purpose, an ideal moment, which will be pursued through work CARLEAL, , p.

    Thus, Marx postulates the existence of a conscious teleological attribution, exclusive of the human condition.

    Considering this formulation of the work as teleology in a historical perspective, the result is that: for animals, history happens, but they do not elaborate their own historical project they are, therefore, alienated beings. Thus, animals would not be the purpose of their own history. In accordance with his interpretation, first it is necessary to recognize the explicit ontological dimension of the Marxian theory, which defines human beings as active beings, whereas the role of objects takes place in the context of the sensitive activity of humans.

    Human activity, such as work, will build the link between subject and object, enabling the effectuation and confirmation of both in the surrounding world. Besides the ability of devising their own goals, human beings are also able to observe the sensitive objectivity and understand its operation.

    Such activity occurs within a social environment and, in the meantime, the product of human action transforms this social environment in which the own human being is formed.

    Another important philosopher to study the human teleology is Habermas [AD- ]. Habermas understands human activity and thought from a pragmatic-linguistic perspective. In his philosophical system, he uses the concepts of goals and means, which requires a brief explanation about how Max Weber [ d.

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    The choice for these goals would not be possible to be rationally analyzed, since it refers to values, which cannot be compared among themselves. But this does not mean that science and human rationality are not useful, since when the goals are established, science may act in several ways, such as: a. Helping active humans to be aware of their ultimate goals, comprising the conceptual and logical analysis of their established goals.

    Weber reiterates that one of the essential tasks of every science of human cultural life has actually been, since the beginning, a clear presentation of their ideas, in order to understand them and also to know why they should be striven for WEBER, [] , p. Thus, science may perform a formal-logical evaluation of the content which is presented on value judgment and historically given ideas, and an evaluation of ideals, regarding the assumption of no inner contradiction of what is being desired WEBER, [] , p.

    Establishing which means would be appropriate or not to certain proposed goals WEBER, [] , p. Verifying and proving what would be the consequences of applying the required means WEBER, [] , p.

    Helping to clarify the cost of reaching the desired goal, in terms of the foreseeable losses of not reaching other goals WEBER, [] , p. Thereby, the main role of Science and rationality is trying to understand the means.

    The reflection on the means provides the human beings with the way that seems to be the most propitious to achieve their desired aims. This influence on other actors, in the strategic action, may happen by means of weapons, goods, intimidation, seduction, rhetoric, etc.

    These individual goals were previously defined by the subject, whereas reason is used just to define the most appropriate mean to achieve the goal.

    This possibility of a rational discussion of goals may lead to a social action based on consensus, denominated as communicative action HABERMAS, , p. Habermas proposes that the society should move progressively from the strategic action to the communicative action. In this way, people may reach a social practice in which the individuals rationally discuss about the goals to seek, setting and reformulating the goals intersubjectively, towards a harmonic point of interests and action plans.

    In this kind of action, the orientation is no longer exclusive to the individual success, becoming oriented to mutual agreements. The communicative action assumes a fundamental role in the Habermasian philosophical theory, because: where the thelos ultimate goal or objective of understanding lies, under the aegis of language die Sprache , is where the process of obtaining knowledge Verstand occurs, from the consensus among the interactively and linguistically competent subjectivities.

    In this dialogue, the subjects think together about which are the best goals to be pursued by the social group. The communicative action, as a facilitator of the action coordination, enables the mutual agreement.

    Thereby, it will be the basis for the defense of democracy, in the political scene, and for the consensus on the fundamental human rights. In the same way, it will help in the criticism of repression, censorship and other actions that hamper the dialogue within the society. During these studies, the scientist generally employs several concepts with a teleological background, which involves the different shades of meaning investigated in this paper.

    The aim of this paper was to contribute to help the Natural Science researchers in increasing their sensitivity to teleological aspects which are pertinent to their researches. The Aristotelian classification of the four causes, specially the efficient and final causes, is the first epistemological scrutiny, as its elicitation in the environmental studies may largely contribute to clarify the investigative structures.

    When there is no such awareness, the division between causal systems that are strictly causal and the ones that are teleological may go unnoticed. This is specially the case in the studies of ecosystems, where the emergence of teleology occurs through scales of evolution and complexity that are not always clear and definite. For example, the functioning of a bacterium or another cell organism may be explained almost only based on strict chemical causal reasonings.

    On the other hand, when dealing with more complex animals like intelligent mammals , issues such as purpose, thought and behavior become increasingly patent. Another controversial theoretical point is about the causal explanation applied to systems of living beings communities, populations, ecosystems, biota, etc. In such cases, it is usual to state that a group of living beings interacts in favor of their survival, even when there is not the assumption of a unique transcendental consciousness behind the teleological system.

    Regarding this topic, it may be useful to recall the Kantian discussions on the way human beings perceive Nature as a system that tends to its own harmony. In these discussions, besides recognizing the finalist aspect of Nature, Kant was cautiously concerned about defining the limits of the finalist explanation in its relation with the strict causal studies and conclusions of empirical knowledge.

    The Kantian Theorization of a dual method for the investigation of nature, encompassing the reflective judgment intuitive observation of nature complementary to the causal determinism empirical experimentation in Physics, with the use of abstract categories may be applied to the scientific contemporary scene, leading to a possible complementarity between the geosciences with systemic approach and the quantitative geosciences.

    The geosciences with systemic approach linked deeper to the reflective judgment care more for the perception of the interaction among elements in dynamic and complex studies, based on presupposition that Kant ascribed to nature teleology, unity, harmony, among others by means of the reflective judgment.