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Fritz Kreisler Cadenza Beethoven Violin Concerto SheetMusicTradeCom. Report. Post on Apr Views. Category. Violin Concerto in D major, Op (Beethoven, Ludwig van) Related Works, Beethoven also arranged as Piano Concerto in D major, Opa. It was printed. Mozart cadenza Violin concerto 3 Sam Franko Wolfgang Mozart, Concerto for violin and orchestra in D, Violin concerto in irtrimuzcomcomp.gq · Wolfgang Mozart, Documents · Fritz Kreisler Cadenza Beethoven Violin Concerto.
A thinner, longer neck was employed, tilted back at an Towards the Violin Concerto Op. The fingerboard was narrowed at the peg-box end and broadened somewhat towards the bridge, adopting a more markedly curved outline to match the modifications to the bridge. It was also lengthened, thus affording the violinist greater facility in the higher positions.
To reinforce the instrument against the increased pressure through the bridge exerted on the belly, a longer, thicker bass bar was introduced, while the more substantial soundpost also played a significant part in realising the late-eighteenth-century sound ideal. French makers appear to have been in the vanguard of change,24 but it seems likely that the instruments of most, if not all, of the violinists in Beethoven's circle in the early nineteenth century would have been converted to comply with contemporary musical ideals and requirements.
The consistently high tessitura of the solo part of Beethoven's Violin Concerto suggests that he was fully aware of these adjustments to the neck fitting and fingerboard and was keen to take advantage of the increased technical facility they offered in the higher positions. The fact that the quartet of string instruments presented to Beethoven in by Prince Lichnowsky has been modernised may also hold some significance in this respect, but it is not known when these alterations were carried out.
Neither the chin rest, invented cl, nor the shoulder pad, first mentioned in Baillot's treatise of ,25 would have been part of the violinist's tools-in-trade at this time. Furthermore, apart from the silver- or copper-wound gut g, violin strings would generally have been of pure gut, and their thicknesses would have varied considerably according to performers' tastes and tonal requirements.
The form, dimensions, weight, materials and general construction of the violin bow were also in a state of flux during Beethoven's early Beethoven: Violin Concerto career. Tourte eventually concluded that pernambuco wood Caesalpinia echinata best satisfied those requirements of lightness, strength and elasticity demanded by violinists of his day.
He determined the ideal length of the violin bowstick to be between 74cm and 75cm and the optimum overall weight as about g. Owing to the pronounced concave curvature of his bowstick, Tourte opted for a hatchet-like design for the head, facing it with a protective plate generally of ivory and making it higher and heavier than before in order to prevent the hair from touching the stick when pressure was applied at the tip.
He redressed the balance by adding the ferrule and metal or tortoiseshell inlay to the frog, back-plates and screw-button. The amount of hair employed in the stringing of bows was also increased.
To counteract its irregular bunching, Tourte widened the ribbon of hair to measure about 10mm at the nut and about 8mm at the point29 and kept it uniformly flat and even by securing it at the frog with a ferrule, believed to have been invented by Louis Tourte pere. A wooden wedge was positioned between the hair and the bevelled portion of the frog so that the hair was pressed against the ferrule and the latter prevented from sliding off.
The metal heel-plate used to strengthen the back of the frog is also believed to have been added by makers during the last decade of the eighteenth century, Francois Tourte being one of the first to introduce it with some consistency. Beethoven was evidently alert to these developments in bow construction, his knowledge possibly deriving from Rodolphe Kreutzer, whom he had met in Vienna in and with whom he remained in correspondence for some years.
In composing his concerto, Beethoven would doubtless have been mindful of its potential for smooth bow changes with the minimum differentiation, where required, between slurred and separate bowing. A normal straight bow stroke with the index-finger pressure and bow speed constant produced an even tone throughout its length, because the shape and flexibility of the stick allowed even finger-pressure distribution.
Variation of this pressure, bow speed, contact point, type of stroke and other technical considerations provided the expressive range so important to contemporary aesthetic ideals.
The shape and consequent inferior strength of most pre-Tourte bows result in the hair being capable of considerably less tension than that of Tourte models. Thus they yield rather more when brought into contact with the strings and produce, in Leopold Mozart's words, 'a small, even if barely audible, softness at the beginning of the stroke'.
The concave stick of Tourte's bows, on the other hand, yields very little on contact with the string, thereby affording a more or less immediate attack.
Furthermore, its quicker take-up of hair, greater strength particularly at the point and resiliency and its broader ribbon of hair also contributed to widening the vocabulary of bow strokes to include true sforzando effects and various accented and 'springing' bowings. The martele, the most fundamental of all modern strokes, formed the basis of other important bowings; even the staccato, the natural stroke of the upper half of most pre-Tourte bows, became a series of small successive martelestrokes with the Tourte model.
Universal approval of the Tourte bow was slow to materialise. Although Woldemar claims that the 'Viotti' i.
Tourte model was exclusively used,34 some French makers continued to make bows modelled on pre-Tourte designs well into the nineteenth century. Significantly, Vienna was probably the most conservative major European city when it came to instrumental innovations.
Robert Winter points out that the Viennese 'maintained a near-fanatical loyalty to their simpler [piano] action well into the twentieth century' despite the significant developments in England and Paris during the first half of the nineteenth century.
Interestingly, too, Leopold Mozart's Versuch einer griindlichen Beethoven: Violin Concerto Violinschule of was still popular in nineteenth-century reprintings in Vienna, so it is not surprising that few of the leading Viennese violinists adopted Viotti's bowing style, which stressed variety of slurring, long strokes and powerful tone. Add to this anomaly the extraordinary textual history and genesis of Beethoven's concerto and the likelihood that the ad hoc orchestra convened for its premiere comprised mixed groups of players, some with fully modernised instruments and Tourte bows and others who clung tenaciously to unaltered instruments with flat 'transition' bows, and reasons for the indifferent early reception history of the work become more comprehensible.
Mendelssohn and Brahms, for example, sought the advice of distinguished violinists such as Ferdinand David and Joseph Joachim, while Beethoven assimilated the most important currents in late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenthcentury string playing through his association with numerous eminent performers. During the latter part of his time in Bonn, he worked with the violin- and cello-playing Romberg cousins Andreas and Bernhard, and he frequently attended quartet parties at the home of Emanuel Aloys Forster.
He became closely associated with Wenzel Krumpholz, Anton Wranitzky, Ignaz Schuppanzigh, Karl Amenda, Franz Clement, Joseph Mayseder and Joseph Boehm during his years in Vienna; and despite increasing deafness and his inclination to scoff at advice, the experience of hearing and working with other internationally acclaimed violinists who visited Vienna, particularly Rodolphe Kreutzer, George Polgreen Bridgetower and Pierre Baillot, undoubtedly contributed significantly towards his concept of violin playing.
Thus, in addition to his own German background, the principal factors which influenced Beethoven in the composition of his Violin Concerto emanated from France and Vienna. The French connection I - principal personalities From his early career in Bonn, Beethoven was familiar with a wide variety of French music, ranging from the repertory of the pre-revolutionary opera comique and the lyric dramas of the s, which served as his models for Fide Ho, to the concertos of the French violin school.
He was a particular admirer of Luigi Cherubini , a dominant 11 figure in French musical life at the turn of the century who visited Vienna in as an acknowledged master of the French operatic style. Viotti, who may have assisted Tourte in his development of the 'modern' bow,2 soon gained favour in Paris as a violinist and composer after a somewhat mixed reception on his debut at the Concert Spirituel in , playing one of his own concertos.
Some objected to his style, which, they claimed, was designed 'more to astonish than to please';3 however, by , 'in Vienna and St. Petersburg, in London and Paris, everyone played Viotti'.
They range from those in a cosmopolitan galant style to those whose character, drama and expressive potential were strengthened immeasurably by operatic influences, notably Nos. The principles of Viotti's performing style and his concept of the violin concerto were perpetuated and developed by, among others, Pierre Rode ; thirteen violin concertos , Pierre Baillot ; nine violin concertos and Rodolphe Kreutzer ; nineteen violin concertos , with all of whom Beethoven had personal contact at some stage of his career.
Clement had been a child prodigy, and was considered to be a remarkable violinist with a prodigious memory, but was, as well, something of a charlatan in that some of his public performances were said to be circus-like.
He performed the Beethoven Concerto by sight-reading though there is some dispute about this with an unrehearsed orchestra, and he divided the work up, inserting a sonata of his own after the first movement, playing his sonata with the violin up-side-down, and on one string.
The first performance was a benefit concert for Clement, but it is not known whether Beethoven consulted Clement about the violin part. Piano concertos were more popular during that time, and Beethoven was persuaded to write a piano version, which was published the following year, a year before the composer subjected the violin concerto to a final revision.
There was no known exchange between the composer and the performer after the initial performance. No violin cadenzas were written by Beethoven, though he wrote cadenzas for the piano version, and violin cadenzas were subsequently written by Joachim, David, Kreisler and many other celebrated violinists. The fourteen-year-old Henri Vieuxtemps played it in Vienna in However, it did not begin to find its first interpreters and admirers until Joseph Joachim performed it in London in under the direction of Mendelssohn; both artists were vitally interested in stimulating appreciation of the classical masters.
As late as , Louis Spohr who rejected the late works of Beethoven , said to Joachim after a performance of the Beethoven Concerto that he supposed it was fine in its own way, but he would rather hear Joachim play a "real" violin piece. Spohr wrote his first five violin concertos before Beethoven completed his, and neither Spohr nor his contemporaries gave attention to the merits of Beethoven's Concerto.
The Beethoven Concerto was not a display piece, and found slow acceptance by virtuosi, who had, during that era, their own concerti primarily in mind, with the desire to showcase their particular virtuosic strengths.
Beethoven's towering musical concepts, mirroring the spirit of reform, democracy and revolution, and his idiomatic treatment of the violin and pianistic thinking, had to wait for a later era to be appreciated.
He received the Beethoven Gold Medal in London. Indeed, he was universally honored as one of the rare outstanding citizens of the world.
Yet through it all, Kreisler remained ever a modest and humble man.
His great interest in life, his warm-heartedness toward his fellow man, found its way into his music. His audiences, who were enormous and completely infatuated with him, instinctively recognized these qualities in their idol.
Fortunately for us, we still have his music.