1. 3 Safe handling rules for cylinders of compressed gases. . CGA P-1-1965 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ---"'C""O"-'-M!! P.!!R""ES""S""E'-"'D. 29 CFR 1910.6 incorporates Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet P-1, Safe. Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers. before you ever touch a compressed gas cylinder. You x The Compressed Gas Association (CGA) offers as, Pamphlet P-1, Safe Handling of Compressed.
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Founded in 1913, the Compressed Gas Association is dedicated to the development and promotion of safety standards in the industrial, medical, and food gases. CGA P-1 1965 Section 3.1; General and utilization of acetylene in cylinders shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet G-1-1966. 29. Compressed Gases Part 1. CHARACTERISTICS OF CYLINDERS in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet P-1-1965, which is incorporated.
BOSCH was already well aware that the production of a pure hydrogen - nitrogen mixture is largest single contributor to the total production cost of ammonia So, in contrast to the synthesis reaction, dramatic changes happened over the years in the 2 technology of synthesis-gas generation, and industrial ammonia processes differ today mainly with respect to synthesis-gas preparation and purification.
The predominant fossil fuels are natural gas, liquified petroleum gas LPG , naphtha, and higher petroleum fractions; coal or coke is used today only under special economic and geographical conditions China, India, South Africa. Recovery of ammonia as byproduct of other production processes, e. Of course, some of the hydrogen comes also from the hydrocarbons themselves methane has the highest content , and the carbon acts as a reducing agent for water and in some processes may also facilitate the separation of oxygen from nitrogen by formation of carbon dioxide, which can be removed by various operations.
As the ammonia sythesis is the very heart of every ammonia production and is also from a historical point of view the most interesting section it seems to be justified to discuss the fundamentals and the catalysis of this reaction separately and at first. After this the various techniques used in the individual process steps of industrial ammonia production will be reviewed: gas generation and feedstock pretreatment, carbon monoxide shift conversion, gas purification, compression, and ammonium synthesis.
Next the concept and philosophy of integrated single - train ammonia plants will be presented, followed by a review of the commercial processes presently marketed by the various licensors and engineering contractors and of some options for modernization of older plants. Separate chapters are included for the following subjects: integration of other production processes; material considerations for equipment fabrication; handling, storage and transport of ammonia: quality specifications and analysis; environmental, safety and health aspects; chemical reactions and uses; economic aspects; future prospects.
Historical Development The driving force in the search for methods of nitrogen fixation, of course, was to produce fertilizers. In principle there are three ways of breaking the bond of the nitrogen molecule and fixing the element in a compound: 1 To combine the atmospheric elements nitrogen and oxygen directly to form nitric oxides 2 To combine nitrogen and hydrogen to give ammonia 3 To use compounds capable of fixing nitrogen in their structure under certain reaction conditions.
A vast amount of research in all three directions led to commercial processes for each of them: the electric arc process, the cyanamid process, and ammonia synthesis, which finally displaced the other two and rendered them obsolete.
The availability of cheap hydrolelectric power in Norway and the United States stimulated the development of the electric arc process. Air was passed through an electric arc which raised its temperature to "C, where nitrogen and oxygen combine to give nitric oxide. If the gas is flammable or toxic, place an appropriate sign at the cylinder, warning against these hazards. Notify the gas supplier and follow his instructions as to the return of the cylinder. It is illegal to ship compressed gas in cylinders that have been exposed to fire.
Consult your supplier for advice under these circumstances. Cover label with Empty Label meeting ICC requirements, or if cylinder is provided with combination shipping and caution tag remove lower portion. A flame should never be permitted to come in contact with any part of a compressed gas cylinder. Many steels undergo decreased ductility at low temperatures. As the ideas for the book got bigger and loftier, David Carr, Director of University of Manitoba Press, stepped in to publish it.
This anthology and the exhibition at the Winnipeg Art Gallery August would not have happened without the support and help of these people at the initial stages. I was able to research in the most important Canadian archives for architecture, the Canadian Centre for Architecture, the Canadian Architectural Archives, and the National Archives of Canada, but the most fertile ground was, of course, in Winnipeg.
Krista Macdonald of Transportation and Government Services spent days digging up plans of provincially owned buildings. Henry documented almost every important midcentury Modern building in the city, and it saddens me that he is not here to see the project to its fruition.
My research assistant at the University of Winnipeg, Aldona Dziedziejko, helped to gather accurate information regarding the illustrations included in this book. Dziedziejko also undertook the task of preparing biographies on the Winnipeg Modernist architects who were active during the mid-century. I thank Aldona for her great research skills, she has aided me in all aspects of the book.
Another student from the University of Winnipeg, Jenny Western, now curator at the Art Gallery of Southwestern Manitoba, worked on the bibliography, which is the most extensive on Winnipeg Modernism to date. I thank the WAG for funding Western's work. Some of the most active players in this project were the architects themselves, who gave of their time, their knowledge, and their archives. I would also like to thank Neil Minuk for sharing his knowledge on James Donahue.
Bob Talbot and Ernest Mayer scanned images for the book. A special mention must be made of all the first-year students in the Environmental Design program at the Faculty of Architecture, who took the introductory architecture history course with me between and , for their inspiring essays and photographs on Winnipeg Modern architecture.
I thank Brigitte Desrochers, Architecture Officer, for directing me to these grants. It is a nice coincidence that John A. Russell, the Dean of the School of Architecture at the University of Manitoba when many of these Modernist structures were being designed, was one of the founding members of the Canada Council in Allan Waisman was magnanimous in his contribution to the book.
The funding raised by the WAG, led by the efforts of Herbert Enns, Cathy Collins, and during the final months, Vicki Klassen, was shared between the two institutions in a most cooperative manner.
Libling, and KGS Group for their contributions to the exhibition and the book. Enns's design of both the book and the exhibition has made fundamental contributions to its intellectual content as well. Invaluable for me during this process were the advice and help of my partner Oliver Botar. Oliver not only read the essays, but has been a central part of this project since we drove into Winnipeg in My parents, Fred and Lucy, and my sons, Nadir and Devin, inspired me to keep up my motivation.
Across the playing fields on Rothesay Street, a modest Modernist shopping mall dispensed Pharmaceuticals, travel advice, and groceries from behind slick and minimal aluminum and glass walls. I remember our strange Chevrolet Biscayne—a black beauty if there ever was one—looming large in our family's driveway: a stylish and spacious two-door sedan with wings. Playing basketball in high school included summer training camps at the University of Winnipeg.
I remember carrying well-worn Chuck Taylor Converse sneakers in my gym bag as I ascended the escalators to the upper reaches of the super-graphic-lined Centennial Hall for the first time. Raised on CCM bicycles, Hockey Night in Canada, and the Guess Who—and the grandson of a suburban house builder and developer—I emerged from a subliminal Modernist cocoon on a steel-framed mezzanine high above the gymnasium inspired to study architecture.
Their inspiring revelations of the cultural forces that shaped Modernist ideals have inspired my design of the publication and exhibition. Upon my appointment as Head of the graduate Department of Architecture at the University of Manitoba in , I was encouraged to explore the prospects for a Winnipeg Modernist Architecture retrospective by Diarmuid Nash, partner in the firm Moryiama Teshima Architects in Toronto, and Unversity of Manitoba alumnus.
In March of , I lectured for Dr. Keshavjee at the University of Winnipeg on Charles and Ray Eames, and a year later, we formalized plans for an exhibition and publication on Winnipeg's Modernist architecture.
David Carr of the University of Manitoba Press expertly managed the publication, Pat Sanders completed the exquisite text editing, and Cheryl Miki organized the publication's marketing and distribution.
The high quality of the press tests and printing set-up is a tribute to the expertise of Brad Schmidt and Donovan Bergman of Friesens. The typographic designer and professor David Cabianca gave me practical advice about modern fonts and their usage, and Daniel Melendez assisted with the titles and the exhibition text. I am grateful to Jocelyn and David Laurence, children of Jean Margaret Laurence, for their enthusiastic permission to 'unravel' "North Main Car—Winnipeg" , from the estate of Margaret Laurence, for presentation in the exhibition.
Robert Kroetsch and Turnstone Press generously gave permission to publish an excerpt from his Seed Catalogue.
Gloria Kalen deserves special acknowledgement for allowing Dr. Keshavjee and me to complete a detailed image-by-image search through Henry Kalen's vast archive of exceptional negatives and contact prints over many visits. Professor Grant Marshall and Professor Peter Forster accompanied me on the key initial architectural tours of Winnipeg.
Professor Marshall also assisted me in colour selection for the exhibition and gave me many insights into the interior design history of the period. For the exhibition at the Winnipeg Art Gallery, directors Patricia Bovey and Pierre Arpin supported the project from its inception through completion. Our high ambitions were enthusiastically supported by Brigitte Desrochers, the energetic and visionary Architecture Officer for the Canada Council, and I am exceedingly grateful for the Council's generous financial support.
Nancy LeBlond, daughter of John A. Russell, and her husband, Ted LeBlond, Principal at Stantec Architecture, generously shared their personal archival information and recollections. My family has patiently persevered through this project's long gestation period with good humour.
I would like to convey—to the extent possible in text—my sincere appreciation to Dr. Serena Keshavjee, who contributed her vast energy, her great powers of concentration, and her extraordinary research skills to the project. She was able to manage the quite unexpected deluge of information, coordinate the contributions of authors, write an intense article on Centennial Hall, and gather up the loose ends of the project in her extensive, over-arching introduction.
Her gifts of research, documentation, and intelligent criticism have given the publication a strong sense of intellectual coherence.
I have tried to invoke a sense of spatial and material depth in my design, applying principles of proportion, colour, spatial arrangement, and material selection normally associated with a work of architecture to this publication: the book has been designed like a building. The quality of the bank architecture on Main Street alone demonstrates Winnipeg's prosperity during this period, fig.
Indeed, Winnipeg has been rightly seen as a kind of crucible of Canadian Modernist architecture. Under the leadership of John A. Russell to , the School of Architecture of the University of Manitoba graduated some of the most important representatives of Canadian Modernism, such as John C. Parkin, Harry Seidler, and Douglas C.
Some graduates went on to important careers elsewhere, but others remained in Winnipeg, producing one fig.
Other than Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal, Winnipeg maintains more high-quality Modern buildings than any other Canadian city. Despite the relative lack of redevelopment pressure in Winnipeg, one cannot be complacent about these buildings. Most people are not aware that we are in the midst of a crisis of historical preservation. While heritage societies still put nearly all their efforts into protecting late nineteenth- and early twentiethcentury buildings, in fact, it is Modernist and proto-Modernist structures that are the most endangered.
Historian Alan Artibise has noted that because of this economic situation, "The period from to [was] the most difficult in Winnipeg's history. According to historian Edward Whitcomb, the s and s represented Winnipeg's cultural revival after a long stagnant period, and this is evident in the quality and quantity of the structures built during this time.
Winnipeg also needed a more elaborate infrastructure to support this mostly suburban expansion around the city. It was during these years that the transportation system, the Winnipeg floodway, and the hydroelectrical dams such as those in Pinawa were developed. As Martin Tessler's photographic essay on "Living Modernism" documents, many of these Modernist structures are still in good use, although not all are in good repair.
Stewart Photograph: Henry Kalen D5. Mel Michener, for example, has described a point in his career when the architectural firm Libling, Michener, and Associates had contracts for schools in Manitoba.
Lockhart, of the newly formed University of Winnipeg, stated, "with every addition to the physical plant students came to crowd the available space. One of the reasons for the high quality of Manitoban Modernist architecture is the School of Architecture at the University of Manitoba.
When architecture was first taught at the university in , it was only the third such school to do so in Canada, and the only school in the Western provinces until , when the University of British Columbia opened its doors.